ENT (EARS, NOSE, THROAT)
Adenoids glands help protect the body from viruses and bacteria. However, sometimes the adenoid glands become swollen or enlarged due to an infection or allergies. This can cause breathing problems, ear infections, or other complications.
What is this?
Adenoids are a patch of tissue that is high up in the throat, just behind the nose. Adenoids may look like small jumps of tissue, but these glands serve an important purpose in Young children. They are part of the immune system and help protect the body from viruses and bacteria. however, removing them has not been shown to affect a child’s ability to fight infections.
Adenoid begins to shrink around age 5 to 7 in children and will be almost completely gone by the teenage years. Adenoids are not visible in most adults.
Sometimes, a child’s adenoid may become swollen or enlarged due to an infection or allergies. Some children may also be born with abnormally large adenoids.
When a child’s adenoid become enlarged, they can cause problems by partially blocking his or her airway. This can result in difficulty breathing through the nose that can lead to snoring or more serious conditions such as sleep apnea (stopping breathing) at night chronic (long-term) nasal drainage can else be seen.
Enlarged adenoid can also contribute to chronic ear infections and lead to fluid in the ear that can cause temporary hearing loss.
Adenoid problems can also contribute to chronic tonsillitis (swelling of the tonsils, which are soft tissues located near the back of the mouth)
How does a doctor determine if a child needs an adenoidectomy?
If you suspect your child may have enlarged adenoids because of problems with their breathing or ears, you should Consult an ENT specialist. After taking a health history, he or she will examine your child’s adenoids using a small light and reflecting device.
based on your child symptoms, if his or her adenoids appear enlarged, your doctor may recommend surgery of adenoid.
By Dr. Mamatarani Rout
ENT Consultant. (Otolaryngologist) MBBS, DLO (ENT)
Harsh ENT Hospital
Can the flu permanently damage your sense of smell :
The flu can damage your sense of smell. Fortunately, this is usually not permanent, though it may take it a while to return. Often, whether or not you regain your sense of smell depends upon the underlying cause. If extensive damage is done to your nasal nerves, it is more likely that the condition will be permanent.
The medical term for a complete loss of smell is anosmia, while a partial loss of smell is called hyposmia.
Typically, anosmia is not an indicator of a serious condition. However, because the sense of taste and sense of smell are closely related, anosmia may mean that you lose interest in eating, and as a result, lose too much weight. Therefore, you fail to get the important nutrients your body needs. Anosmia affects 3 percent of the adult population over the age of 40, and the incidence increases with age. For those over 60 years of age, the rate rises to as much as 22 percent.
Reasons for loss of smell:
Any condition that obstructs your nasal passage or flow of air through your nose can cause you to lose your sense of smell.
These conditions include:
There are also neurological conditions that can cause anosmia. Although uncommon, the olfactory center of the brain the part used for processing the sense of smell can be damaged by:
A brain tumor
Exposure to harmful chemicals such as insecticides
Zinc-containing nasal sprays (these have been taken off the market)
How can we help you :
Ent surgeons who have extensive expertise and can implement a plan to help you. The course of care depends upon the underlying cause. For example, if your problem is caused by chronic sinus infections, then we will create a treatment plan to help you. In cases like this, your sense of smell should return at some point after the underlying problem is resolved.
If your anosmia is due to an underlying neurological condition, the good news is that your olfactory (sense of smell) nerves can regenerate, although it cannot be predicted when or to what extent. There’s also a large difference in the rate of regeneration among different individuals—for some it may take days, while for others, it may take years. There are some treatments available, and we’ll be happy to discuss if one of them is right for you.
ENT Consultant. (Otolaryngologist) MBBS, DLO (ENT).
WORLD RECORD BY DR B.P.TYAGI (http://www.entinghaziabad.com/)
1-First ENT surgeon did 55 ear drum free surgery in 17.28 hrs(an event is recorded in LIMCA book).
2-First ENT surgeon in the world did ear drum operation in Ghaziabad jail.
3-First ENT surgeon in the world, with Hatric in Limca book.
Free ear surgery camp
On the occasion of World Health Day, 7th of April 2019 Harsh ENT hospital is organizing a Free* Ear drum surgery camp under the guidance of Dr. Brij Pal Tyagi.
For free registration call: 0120-4552014 / 09810287957
*First 10 patients will be free of charges.
No vacancy are available right now…
HARSH ENT HOSPITAL,C-43,RDC,GHAZIABAD,DR.B.P.TYAGI
1-New facilities -laser hair removal(unwanted hairs).
2—Scarless tympanoplasty(repair of ear drum).
3—Free all endoscopies in OPD.
4–post op free hearing screening.
5–Charitable OPD every Sunday.
6–Vertigo & tinnitus clinics.
7-All revision surgery free.
8-Free treatment for poor patients.
9-Free camps for deaf & cancer patients in association with AWAKENING INDIA FOUNDATION.
H1N1(SWINE FLU), FEVER, COUGHING, SNEEZING, FATIGUE, SORE THROAT HEADACHE, MUSCLE ACHE,
PREVENTION OF SWINE FLU.
1-HIGH PERSONAL HYGIENE.
2-REGULAR EXERCISE .
4-CHECK TEMP REGULARLY.
5-DO NOT SHAKE HANDS-IT SPEED WITH SKIN CONTACT.
6-COVER YOUR NOSE & MOUTH WHILE COUGHING & SNEEZING.
7-DEPOSE THE USED TISSUE JUST AFTER USE.
8-IF YOU HAVE SWINE FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS, CHECK WITH NASOPHARYNGEAL SWAB IMMEDIATELY/CONTACT A GOOD ENT SURGEON FOR NASOPHARYNGEAL SWAB.
9-IF YOU HAVE FLU MAINTAIN 1 METER DISTANCE FROM OTHER PERSON.
10-IF YOU HAVE FLU LIKE SYMPTOMS THAN STAY HOME.
11-AVOID HUGGING KISSING & SHAKING HANDS.
12-AVOID TOUCHING ,NOSE,MOUTH,WITH UNWASHED HANDS.
NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS(NIHL), DIWALI, CRACKERS
NIHL Near Diwali we should avoid firecrackers, to prevent the NIHL. There is a formula to calculate the time of exposure to noise.
130dbs– 00, perforation of eardrum & complete hearing loss
crackers noise ranges from 1oo–120 DBS(exposure time is 3minutes to 1 hr.more than this is always hazardous to HEARING system.
WORLD DEAF DAY 2017
Deafness-deafness is a loss of hearing in any frequency >20 db.
I found this category of patient in my pod is > 50%
A conductive hearing loss is caused by anything that interferes with the transmission of sound from the outer to the inner ear. Below are some possible causes of conductive hearing loss.
1. Middle ear infections (otitis media).
2. Collection of fluid in the middle ear (“glue ear” in children).
3. Blockage of the outer ear, most commonly by wax.
5. Damage to the ossicles.
The sensorineural hearing loss is due to damage to the pathway that sound impulses take from the hair cells of the inner ear to the auditory nerve and the brain. Below are some possible causes.
1. Age-related hearing loss (presbyacusis).
2. Acoustic trauma (injury caused by loud noise) can damage hair cells.
3. Meningitis can lead to loss of hair cells or other damage to the auditory nerve.
4. Meniere’s disease.
5. Acoustic neuroma. This is a benign tumor affecting the auditory nerve.
1-Avoid bottle feeding in children
2-check the family members with the help of tv volume, group talk, voice of family member whether it is loud/not.
3-check the child hearing by clapping (reflexes of a baby )
4-avoid sounds >70 db for a long time.
5-Avoid ototoxic drugs.
6-Avoid vigorous yoga.
7-Avoid excessive use of cell phone & microwave.
8-Do did not put any substance in an ear without consultation with the specialist.
9-Avoid trauma to ear in any form.
10-Avoid unnecessary parceling.
11-Health check-up is mandatory every ear or so to pick up the other diseases which affect hearing Like-DIABETES etc.
Hearing loss and deafness are serious disabilities that can impose a heavy social and economic burden on individuals, families, communities, and countries. Children with hearing impairment often experience delayed development of speech, language, and cognitive skills, which may result in slow learning and difficulty progressing in school. In adults, hearing impairment and deafness often make it difficult to obtain, perform, and keep employment. Its big challenge to our society is to help and support the deaf people who are unable to afford and are incapable to take of own health.
First of all, DEAFNESS-KEY FACTS, 360 million people worldwide have disabling hearing loss (1), and 32 million of these are children.
Hearing loss may result from genetic causes, complications at birth, certain infectious diseases, chronic ear infections, the use of particular drugs, exposure to excessive noise, and aging.
60% of childhood hearing loss is due to preventable causes.
1.1 billion young people (aged between 12–35 years) are at risk of hearing loss due to exposure to noise in recreational settings.
DEAFNESS-KEY FACTS, Unaddressed hearing loss poses an annual global cost of 750 billion international dollars (2). Interventions to prevent, identify and address hearing loss are cost-effective and can bring great benefit to individuals.
People with hearing loss benefit from early identification; use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices; captioning and sign language; and other forms of educational and social support.
Over 5% of the world’s population – 360 million people – has disabling hearing loss (328 million adults and 32 million children). Disabling hearing loss refers to hearing loss greater than 40 decibels (dB) in the better hearing ear in adults and a hearing loss greater than 30 dB in the better hearing ear in children. The majority of people with disabling hearing loss live in low- and middle-income countries.
Approximately one-third of people over 65 years of age are affected by disabling hearing loss. The prevalence in this age group is greatest in South Asia, Asia Pacific, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Hearing loss and deafness
A person who is not able to hear as well as someone with normal hearing – hearing thresholds of 25 dB or better in both ears – is said to have hearing loss. Hearing loss may be mild, moderate, severe, or profound. It can affect one ear or both ears and leads to difficulty in hearing conversational speech or loud sounds.
‘Hard of hearing’ refers to people with hearing loss ranging from mild to severe. People who are hard of hearing usually communicate through spoken language and can benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices as well as captioning. People with more significant hearing losses may benefit from cochlear implants.
‘Deaf’ people mostly have a profound hearing loss, which implies very little or no hearing. They often use sign language for communication.
Causes of hearing loss and deafness
The causes of hearing loss and deafness can be divided into congenital causes and acquired causes. Congenital causes may lead to hearing loss being present at or acquired soon after birth. Hearing loss can be caused by hereditary and non-hereditary genetic factors or by certain complications during pregnancy and childbirth, including:
maternal rubella, syphilis or certain other infections during pregnancy;
low birth weight;
birth asphyxia (a lack of oxygen at the time of birth);
inappropriate use of particular drugs during pregnancy, such as aminoglycosides, cytotoxic drugs, antimalarial drugs, and diuretics;
severe jaundice in the neonatal period, which can damage the hearing nerve in a newborn infant.
Acquired causes may lead to hearing loss at any age, such as:
infectious diseases including meningitis, measles, and mumps;
chronic ear infections;
collection of fluid in the ear (otitis media);
use of certain medicines, such as those used in the treatment of neonatal infections, malaria, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and cancers;
injury to the head or ear;
excessive noise, including occupational noise such as that from machinery and explosions;
recreational exposure to loud sounds such as that from the use of personal audio devices at high volumes and for prolonged periods of time and regular attendance at concerts, nightclubs, bars, and sporting events;
aging, in particular, due to degeneration of sensory cells; and
wax or foreign bodies blocking the ear canal.
Among children, chronic otitis media is a common cause of hearing loss.
Impact of hearing loss:
One of the main impacts of hearing loss is on the individual’s ability to communicate with others. Spoken language development is often delayed in children with an unaddressed hearing loss.
Unaddressed hearing loss and ear diseases such as otitis media can have a significantly adverse effect on the academic performance of children. They often have increased rates of grade failure and a greater need for education assistance. Access to suitable accommodations is important for optimal learning experiences but are not always available.
The social and emotional impact
Exclusion from communication can have a significant impact on everyday life, causing feelings of loneliness, isolation, and frustration, particularly among older people with hearing loss.
WHO estimates that unaddressed hearing loss poses an annual global cost of 750 billion international dollars. This includes health sector costs (excluding the cost of hearing devices), costs of educational support, loss of productivity, and societal costs.
In developing countries, children with hearing loss and deafness rarely receive any schooling. Adults with hearing loss also have a much higher unemployment rate. Among those who are employed, a higher percentage of people with hearing loss are in the lower grades of employment compared with the general workforce.
Improving access to education and vocational rehabilitation services, and raising awareness especially among employers about the needs of people with hearing loss, will decrease unemployment rates for people with hearing loss.
Overall, it is suggested that half of all cases of hearing loss can be prevented through public health measures.
In children under 15 years of age, 60% of hearing loss is attributable to preventable causes. This figure is higher in low- and middle-income countries (75%) as compared to high-income countries (49%). Overall, preventable causes of childhood hearing loss include:
Infections such as mumps, measles, rubella, meningitis, cytomegalovirus infections, and chronic otitis media (31%).
Complications at the time of birth, such as birth asphyxia, low birth weight, prematurity, and jaundice (17%).
Use of ototoxic medicines in expecting mothers and babies (4%).
Some simple strategies for prevention of hearing loss include immunizing children against childhood diseases, including measles, meningitis, rubella, and mumps immunizing adolescent girls and women of reproductive age against rubella before pregnancy preventing cytomegalovirus infections in expectant mothers through good hygiene screening for and treating syphilis and other infections in pregnant women strengthening maternal and child health programmes, including the promotion of safe childbirth following healthy ear care practices screening of children for otitis media.
followed by appropriate medical or surgical interventions avoiding the use of particular drugs which may be harmful to hearing, unless prescribed and monitored by a qualified physician referring infants at high risks, such as those with a family history of deafness or those born with low birth weight, birth asphyxia, jaundice or meningitis, for early assessment of hearing, to ensure prompt diagnosis and appropriate management, as required;
reducing exposure (both occupational and recreational) to loud sounds by raising awareness about the risks; developing and enforcing relevant legislation; and encouraging individuals to use personal protective devices such as earplugs and noise-canceling earphones and headphones.
Identification and management.
Early detection and intervention are crucial to minimizing the impact of hearing loss on a child’s development and educational achievements. In infants and young children with hearing loss, early identification and management through infant hearing screening programmes can improve the linguistic and educational outcomes for the child. Children with deafness should be given the opportunity to learn sign language along with their families.
Pre-school, school and occupational screening for ear diseases and hearing loss is an effective tool for early identification and management of hearing loss.
People with hearing loss can benefit from the use of hearing devices, such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices. They may also benefit from speech therapy, aural rehabilitation, and other related services. However, global production of hearing aids meets less than 10% of global need and less than 3% of developing countries’ needs. The lack of availability of services for fitting and maintaining these devices and the lack of batteries are also barriers in many low-income settings.
Making properly-fitted, affordable hearing aids and cochlear implants and providing accessible follow-up services in all parts of the world will benefit many people with hearing loss.
People who develop hearing loss can learn to communicate through the development of lip-reading skills, use of written or printed text and sign language. Teaching in sign language will benefit children with hearing loss, while the provision of captioning and sign language interpretation on television will facilitate access to information.
Officially recognizing national sign languages and increasing the availability of sign language interpreters are important actions to improve access to sign language services. Encouraging organizations of people with hearing loss, parents and family support groups; and strengthening human rights legislation can also help ensure better inclusion for people with hearing loss.
WHO assists Members States in developing programs for ear and hearing care that are integrated into the primary health-care system of the country.
WHO’s work includes providing technical support to the Member States in the development and implementation of national plans for hearing care providing technical resources and guidance for training of health-care workers on hearing care developing and disseminating recommendations to address the major preventable causes of hearing loss undertaking advocacy to raise awareness about the prevalence, causes, and impact of hearing loss as well as opportunities for prevention, identification, and management;
developing and disseminating evidence-based tools for effective advocacy observing and promoting World Hearing Day.
as an annual advocacy event building partnerships to develop strong hearing care programmes, including initiatives for affordable hearing aids, cochlear implants, and services collating data on deafness and hearing loss to demonstrate the scale and the impact of the problem promoting safe listening to reduce the risk of recreational noise-induced hearing loss through the WHO Make Listening Safe initiative; and promoting social inclusion of people with disabilities, including people with hearing loss and deafness, for example, through community-based rehabilitation networks and programmes.