ENT (EARS, NOSE, THROAT)
First of all, DEAFNESS-KEY FACTS, 360 million people worldwide have disabling hearing loss (1), and 32 million of these are children.
Hearing loss may result from genetic causes, complications at birth, certain infectious diseases, chronic ear infections, the use of particular drugs, exposure to excessive noise, and aging.
60% of childhood hearing loss is due to preventable causes.
1.1 billion young people (aged between 12–35 years) are at risk of hearing loss due to exposure to noise in recreational settings.
DEAFNESS-KEY FACTS, Unaddressed hearing loss poses an annual global cost of 750 billion international dollars (2). Interventions to prevent, identify and address hearing loss are cost-effective and can bring great benefit to individuals.
People with hearing loss benefit from early identification; use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices; captioning and sign language; and other forms of educational and social support.
Over 5% of the world’s population – 360 million people – has disabling hearing loss (328 million adults and 32 million children). Disabling hearing loss refers to hearing loss greater than 40 decibels (dB) in the better hearing ear in adults and a hearing loss greater than 30 dB in the better hearing ear in children. The majority of people with disabling hearing loss live in low- and middle-income countries.
Approximately one-third of people over 65 years of age are affected by disabling hearing loss. The prevalence in this age group is greatest in South Asia, Asia Pacific, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Hearing loss and deafness
A person who is not able to hear as well as someone with normal hearing – hearing thresholds of 25 dB or better in both ears – is said to have hearing loss. Hearing loss may be mild, moderate, severe, or profound. It can affect one ear or both ears and leads to difficulty in hearing conversational speech or loud sounds.
‘Hard of hearing’ refers to people with hearing loss ranging from mild to severe. People who are hard of hearing usually communicate through spoken language and can benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices as well as captioning. People with more significant hearing losses may benefit from cochlear implants.
‘Deaf’ people mostly have a profound hearing loss, which implies very little or no hearing. They often use sign language for communication.
Causes of hearing loss and deafness
The causes of hearing loss and deafness can be divided into congenital causes and acquired causes. Congenital causes may lead to hearing loss being present at or acquired soon after birth. Hearing loss can be caused by hereditary and non-hereditary genetic factors or by certain complications during pregnancy and childbirth, including:
maternal rubella, syphilis or certain other infections during pregnancy;
low birth weight;
birth asphyxia (a lack of oxygen at the time of birth);
inappropriate use of particular drugs during pregnancy, such as aminoglycosides, cytotoxic drugs, antimalarial drugs, and diuretics;
severe jaundice in the neonatal period, which can damage the hearing nerve in a newborn infant.
Acquired causes may lead to hearing loss at any age, such as:
infectious diseases including meningitis, measles, and mumps;
chronic ear infections;
collection of fluid in the ear (otitis media);
use of certain medicines, such as those used in the treatment of neonatal infections, malaria, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and cancers;
injury to the head or ear;
excessive noise, including occupational noise such as that from machinery and explosions;
recreational exposure to loud sounds such as that from the use of personal audio devices at high volumes and for prolonged periods of time and regular attendance at concerts, nightclubs, bars, and sporting events;
aging, in particular, due to degeneration of sensory cells; and
wax or foreign bodies blocking the ear canal.
Among children, chronic otitis media is a common cause of hearing loss.
Impact of hearing loss:
One of the main impacts of hearing loss is on the individual’s ability to communicate with others. Spoken language development is often delayed in children with an unaddressed hearing loss.
Unaddressed hearing loss and ear diseases such as otitis media can have a significantly adverse effect on the academic performance of children. They often have increased rates of grade failure and a greater need for education assistance. Access to suitable accommodations is important for optimal learning experiences but are not always available.
The social and emotional impact
Exclusion from communication can have a significant impact on everyday life, causing feelings of loneliness, isolation, and frustration, particularly among older people with hearing loss.
WHO estimates that unaddressed hearing loss poses an annual global cost of 750 billion international dollars. This includes health sector costs (excluding the cost of hearing devices), costs of educational support, loss of productivity, and societal costs.
In developing countries, children with hearing loss and deafness rarely receive any schooling. Adults with hearing loss also have a much higher unemployment rate. Among those who are employed, a higher percentage of people with hearing loss are in the lower grades of employment compared with the general workforce.
Improving access to education and vocational rehabilitation services, and raising awareness especially among employers about the needs of people with hearing loss, will decrease unemployment rates for people with hearing loss.
Overall, it is suggested that half of all cases of hearing loss can be prevented through public health measures.
In children under 15 years of age, 60% of hearing loss is attributable to preventable causes. This figure is higher in low- and middle-income countries (75%) as compared to high-income countries (49%). Overall, preventable causes of childhood hearing loss include:
Infections such as mumps, measles, rubella, meningitis, cytomegalovirus infections, and chronic otitis media (31%).
Complications at the time of birth, such as birth asphyxia, low birth weight, prematurity, and jaundice (17%).
Use of ototoxic medicines in expecting mothers and babies (4%).
Some simple strategies for prevention of hearing loss include immunizing children against childhood diseases, including measles, meningitis, rubella, and mumps immunizing adolescent girls and women of reproductive age against rubella before pregnancy preventing cytomegalovirus infections in expectant mothers through good hygiene screening for and treating syphilis and other infections in pregnant women strengthening maternal and child health programmes, including the promotion of safe childbirth following healthy ear care practices screening of children for otitis media.
followed by appropriate medical or surgical interventions avoiding the use of particular drugs which may be harmful to hearing, unless prescribed and monitored by a qualified physician referring infants at high risks, such as those with a family history of deafness or those born with low birth weight, birth asphyxia, jaundice or meningitis, for early assessment of hearing, to ensure prompt diagnosis and appropriate management, as required;
reducing exposure (both occupational and recreational) to loud sounds by raising awareness about the risks; developing and enforcing relevant legislation; and encouraging individuals to use personal protective devices such as earplugs and noise-canceling earphones and headphones.
Identification and management.
Early detection and intervention are crucial to minimizing the impact of hearing loss on a child’s development and educational achievements. In infants and young children with hearing loss, early identification and management through infant hearing screening programmes can improve the linguistic and educational outcomes for the child. Children with deafness should be given the opportunity to learn sign language along with their families.
Pre-school, school and occupational screening for ear diseases and hearing loss is an effective tool for early identification and management of hearing loss.
People with hearing loss can benefit from the use of hearing devices, such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices. They may also benefit from speech therapy, aural rehabilitation, and other related services. However, global production of hearing aids meets less than 10% of global need and less than 3% of developing countries’ needs. The lack of availability of services for fitting and maintaining these devices and the lack of batteries are also barriers in many low-income settings.
Making properly-fitted, affordable hearing aids and cochlear implants and providing accessible follow-up services in all parts of the world will benefit many people with hearing loss.
People who develop hearing loss can learn to communicate through the development of lip-reading skills, use of written or printed text and sign language. Teaching in sign language will benefit children with hearing loss, while the provision of captioning and sign language interpretation on television will facilitate access to information.
Officially recognizing national sign languages and increasing the availability of sign language interpreters are important actions to improve access to sign language services. Encouraging organizations of people with hearing loss, parents and family support groups; and strengthening human rights legislation can also help ensure better inclusion for people with hearing loss.
WHO assists Members States in developing programs for ear and hearing care that are integrated into the primary health-care system of the country.
WHO’s work includes providing technical support to the Member States in the development and implementation of national plans for hearing care providing technical resources and guidance for training of health-care workers on hearing care developing and disseminating recommendations to address the major preventable causes of hearing loss undertaking advocacy to raise awareness about the prevalence, causes, and impact of hearing loss as well as opportunities for prevention, identification, and management;
developing and disseminating evidence-based tools for effective advocacy observing and promoting World Hearing Day.
as an annual advocacy event building partnerships to develop strong hearing care programmes, including initiatives for affordable hearing aids, cochlear implants, and services collating data on deafness and hearing loss to demonstrate the scale and the impact of the problem promoting safe listening to reduce the risk of recreational noise-induced hearing loss through the WHO Make Listening Safe initiative; and promoting social inclusion of people with disabilities, including people with hearing loss and deafness, for example, through community-based rehabilitation networks and programmes.
First of all BURNING DOCTORS I personally feel that doctors live less number of years than non-doctors. One reason is professional hazards. The factors responsible are:
The stress level of doctor is much higher than the stress levels in non-doctors in other professions.
The stress level has increased in NCR since the introduction of the Consumer Protection Act.
The decision of the Medical Council of India to suspend the license on the deficiency of service has also increased the stress in doctors. They always pray that if the patient has a complaint, he approaches the Consumer Court and not the Council.
Smoking and alcohol are not unknown in doctors.
Metabolic syndrome and pot belly obesity are again very common in doctors.
Diabetes and heart disease are also equally common.
Surprisingly, the incidence of coronary artery disease, angioplasty, stenting and bypass surgery in Cardiologists too is not less.
Doctors are more susceptible to hospital-acquired infection, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV as professional hazards.
SEROLOGICAL TESTS, TUBERCULOSIS, WHO, NATIONAL LABORATORY COMMITTEE
First of all, despite not recommended by any international guideline, the commercial serological tests. (which detect antibodies in the blood developed in response to Mycobacteria tuberculosis infection) continue to be used extensively especially to the private health sector, with claims about accuracy often based on poor quality and grossly insufficient data.
SEROLOGICAL TESTS, TUBERCULOSIS, WHO, NATIONAL LABORATORY COMMITTEE
It is estimated that about 1.5 million TB suspects are subjected to serological tests every year in India at an estimated cost of 15 million USD. Results of several meta-analyses have indicated the poor performance of these tests, and in 2008, an assessment by TDR (UN special programme for research and training in tropical diseases) found that none of the assays were good enough to replace conventional microbiological tests or as an add-on test to rule out tuberculosis.
An updated systematic review commissioned by WHO and TDR in 2010 have reconfirmed these findings. A wrong diagnosis may mean that those with tuberculosis will not get needed therapy and may result in a continued spread of the disease, or that those without tuberculosis may be subjected to possible side–effects from unnecessary treatment leading to wasted resources for the patient and consequent impact on livelihood. This has huge epistemological and socio-economic implications.
The WHO Expert Group and STAG–TB which reviewed this data concluded that currently available commercial serological tests provide inconsistent and imprecise estimates of sensitivity and specificity and strongly recommended that these tests should not be used for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB (adults and children), irrespective of HIV status.
On the basis of STAG–TB recommendation, WHO is due to release a negative policy — the first of its kind—on current commercial tuberculosis serodiagnostics though being cautious not to stifle research and innovation in this field as a more accurate serological test has the potential to become a ‘point of care’ test for diagnosing TB.
The National laboratory committee of RNTCP endorsed the WHO expert group recommendations and requested Central TB Division to disseminate the message to all! Stakeholders involved in TB control in India.